مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2017
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 14 صفحه
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منتشر شده در نشریه امرالد
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Leadership, job crafting, and employee health and performance
ترجمه عنوان مقاله رهبری، کار حرفه ای، سلامت و عملکرد کارکنان
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط پزشکی، مدیریت
گرایش های مرتبط بهداشت حرفه ای، مدیریت منابع انسانی، مدیریت عملکرد، مدیریت اجرایی
مجله مجله توسعه رهبری و سازمان – Leadership & Organization Development Journal
دانشگاه Deutsche Hochschule der Polizei – Munster – Germany
کلمات کلیدی عملکرد، رهبری، سلامت، مهارت شغلی
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی Performance, Leadership, Health, Job crafting
کد محصول E7888
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Employees’ health and performance are positively related to organizational productivity (Grossmeier et al., 2016; Huselid, 1995; Jiang et al., 2012). However, due to unhealthy employees, there are productivity related losses of up to $168 billion (Hassard et al., 2018). Accordingly, keeping employees healthy and productive is of high strategic value for organizations. Top-down leadership and employees’ bottom-up job crafting are important drivers of employees’ health and performance (Rudolph et al., 2017; Skakon et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011). The goal of this study is to integrate both perspectives. We develop and test a model where leadership has an impact on health and performance through employees’ job crafting. Through job crafting, employees are proactively aligning their work better with their abilities, needs, and preferences (Wrzesniewski and Dutton, 2001). In the job demands-resources ( JD-R) job crafting model, employees’ job crafting is aimed at changing job characteristics (Bakker and Demerouti, 2017; Tims et al., 2012). In this study, we test an extended version of the JD-R job crafting model, which differentiates promotion-focused job crafting (i.e. employees try to approach motivating job characteristics through increasing job resources or challenging job demands) from prevention-focused job crafting (i.e. employees try to avoid strenuous job characteristics through decreasing hindering job demands) (Bruning and Campion, 2018; Lichtenthaler and Fischbach, 2016a). Research shows that promotion-focused job crafting is positively and prevention-focused job crafting is negatively related to health and performance (Rudolph et al., 2017). To ensure employees’ health and performance leaders need to facilitate promotion-focused job crafting and attenuate prevention-focused job crafting. Leadership (e.g. servant leadership) is positively related to promotion-focused job crafting (Bavik et al., 2017; Gordon et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2017). With regard to prevention-focused job crafting, results are mixed. For example, directive leadership is positively related to prevention-focused job crafting (Esteves and Lopes, 2017), whereas transformational leadership has no impact on prevention-focused job crafting (Wang et al., 2017). In this study, we argue that employee-oriented leadership reduces employees’ necessity for prevention-focused job crafting because employee-oriented leadership is negatively related to hindering job demands (Schaufeli, 2015; Tuckey et al., 2012). We expect to contribute with this study to the literatures on job crafting, leadership, and employee health and performance by explicating intervening processes in these relationships. We integrate the effects of top-down leadership and employees’ bottom-up job crafting on employee health and performance. We add to research on the extended JD-R job crafting model (Bruning and Campion, 2018; Lichtenthaler and Fischbach, 2016a), which proposes that promotion- and prevention-focused job crafting have different relationships with antecedents (i.e. leadership) and outcomes (i.e. health and performance). We add to the literature on leadership as an antecedent of job crafting (Rudolph et al., 2017). Finally, we add to the literature on performance by considering the relationships of promotion- and prevention-focused job crafting with different performance facets (i.e. task, adaptive, and proactive performance) (Griffin et al., 2007). Summarizing, we expect that employee-oriented leadership is positively related to employees’ health and performance through facilitating promotion-focused job crafting and reducing prevention-focused job crafting.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد رهبری، کار حرفه ای، سلامت و عملکرد کارکنان – امرالد 2017 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2017
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 8 صفحه
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منتشر شده در نشریه NCBI
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله A global, cross cultural study examining the relationship between employee health risk status and work performance metrics
ترجمه عنوان مقاله یک مطالعه فرهنگی بین المللی، بررسی رابطه بین وضعیت خطر سلامت کارکنان و معیارهای عملکرد کار
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط مدیریت، پزشکی
گرایش های مرتبط مدیریت منابع انسانی، مدیریت عملکرد، بهداشت حرفه ای
مجله سالنامه پزشکی حرفه ای و محیط زیست – Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
دانشگاه Cigna – Global Wellbeing Solutions Ltd – UK
کلمات کلیدی رفاه کارکنان، ارزیابی ریسک های بهداشتی، بهره وری نیروی انسانی، طبقه بندی ریسک های بهداشتی، پرستاری، غیبت
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی Employee well-being, Health risk assessment, Workforce productivity, Health risk profiling, Presenteeism, Absenteeism
کد محصول E7889
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Background Occupational health risk assessment (HRA) developed out of the need to address poor work environments suffered by those most vulnerable, such as manual labourers and children [1]. Since then, employee HRA has been utilized on a global scale and has become fundamental to informing well-being programs [2] and employer strategies for increasing overall productivity [3]. What was initially considered an extra within large corporations, has become firmly entrenched within many organizations as not only a good investment strategy but as a duty of care. This is supported by a large body of evidence suggesting that well-being programs are effective in improving numerous aspects of employee health [2] with even the measurement of HRA alone potentially improving well-being levels [4]. Furthermore, research examining return on investment (ROI) [5, 6] has established links between well-being programmes that have been developed based on HRA, and increased productivity, mainly through the lowering of absenteeism and presenteeism [7–9]. HRA is the key to this relationship as it is the basis for understanding how health risk factors combine to drive absenteeism and presenteeism. Absenteeism is defined specifically as any time when an employee does not attend work, hence a clear cut loss of productivity. Presenteeism is more ambiguous as it is when an employee attends work but is not fully functionally due to illness, work overload or decreased motivation. Well-being programmes that focus on employee behaviour changes such as smoking cessation and physical activity improvement have shown biological improvements, such as reduced blood pressure and BMI (body mass index) [10–12], as well as improvements in absenteeism and presenteeism. Further research has provided evidence that psychosocial markers such as increased job satisfaction and lowered stress levels can also be improved by well-being programmes [13]. Importantly, many of these changes have also been linked to reduced medical costs [14–16]. There are many potential drivers for organizations to implement HRA and well-being programs, ranging from reducing costs to delivering on a duty of care, but whatever the underlying reason it is clear that the workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion as it facilitates access to large populations. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) Programme for Occupational Health recently advocated the workplace as a priority for health promotion programs for both public and private organizations so as to achieve success in the globalizing marketplace [17]. A review of the literature produces various examples of large companies reporting substantial savings in medical costs equaling far more than they spent on well-being programs [18]. However, one obstacle with HRA, and therefore well-being programmes, is the current western-centric focus of HRAs. Occupational well-being programmes are predominately utilized by and developed for North American and European populations [2, 5, 12, 19, 20]. As a consequence, specific health risk profiles from non-western or developing countries have seldom been compared and the few times they have, significant differences have been found across many measures [21]. As there is much less known about employee health risk factors relevant to developing countries it is unlikely HRAs are being adapted to local conditions effectively. In fact, evidence suggests that many programmes that have been implemented include only minor adjustments such as measurement conversion (e.g. metric to imperial units) [22].

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد رابطه وضعیت خطر سلامت کارکنان و معیارهای عملکرد کار – NCBI 2017 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2018
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 64 صفحه
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منتشر شده در نشریه الزویر
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Model selection in geological and geotechnical engineering in the face of uncertainty – Does a complex model always outperform a simple model?
ترجمه عنوان مقاله انتخاب مدل در مهندسی زمین شناسی و ژئوتکنیک در مواجهه با عدم اطمینان
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط زمین شناسی و مهندسی عمران
گرایش های مرتبط  ژئوتکنیک
مجله زمین شناسی مهندسی – Engineering Geology
دانشگاه College of Transportation Engineering – Tongji University – China
کلمات کلیدی انتخاب مدل؛ عدم قطعیت؛ اتصالات چند فرمولی؛ خصوصیات سایت؛ شفت حفاری شده؛ حفاری محکم
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی model selection; uncertainty; polynomial fitting; site characterization; drilled shaft; braced excavation
کد محصول E7890
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1. Introduction

In that most models adopted in geological and geotechnical engineering are abstractions of the real world, discrepancies between model predictions and field observations are generally a norm, rather than an exception (Ang and Tang 1984; Cheung and Tang 2005). With advances in mathematics and computational power, researchers could be afforded to derive complex models, which offer an opportunity to improve the fidelity in the model prediction; as such, the models in geological and geotechnical engineering are becoming more complex and sophisticated. On the other hand, simple and robust models are preferred by engineers in practice, as the complex and sophisticated models are more difficult to apply and the model predictions might be less robust. Thus, a dilemma exists between the choice of a complex model for fidelity and that of a simple model for usability and robustness. The issue of model fidelity and robustness is examined herein at a deep level. Generally, the residual (i.e., the discrepancy between model prediction and field observation) of a complex model is much lower compared to that of a simple model because of its higher fidelity. However, the parameters of the complex model are more difficult to characterize accurately and precisely, as a larger number of model parameters are involved in this complex model. This issue would be especially profound in the situation where only limited test data are available. Further, test errors (i.e., discrepancies between measurements and in situ performances) always exist. The limited availability of test data and the randomness of test errors can lead to difficulty in characterizing model parameters, and as such, the characterized model parameters are often uncertain. Thus, it is more appropriate to characterize the model parameters in a probabilistic manner, and the uncertainty in model parameters must be explicitly considered in the selection of solution models (Chiu et al. 2012; Zhang et al. 2014; Ching and Wang 2016). Note that at a given (or same) level of variation (or uncertainty) in the model parameters, the variability in the model prediction obtained from the complex model tends to be larger than that obtained from the simple model. For example, an overfitted model could be more sensitive to the measurement and modeling error (Yuen and Mu 2015). In other words, the complex model is generally less robust against (or more sensitive to) the uncertainty in the model parameters. Moreover, given the same amount of data, the characterized uncertainty in the model parameters of the complex model might be larger than that of the simple model, as the increase in the number of model parameters could lead to increased difficulty in the model parameters characterization. Thus, the predictive ability of the complex model is strongly degraded by the uncertainty in the model parameters.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد انتخاب مدل در ژئوتکنیک در مواجهه با عدم اطمینان – الزویر 2018 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2018
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 3 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه اسپرینگر
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Review of Progressive Business: An Intellectual History of the Role of Business in American History by Christian Olaf Christiansen
ترجمه عنوان مقاله مرور کسب و کار تصاعدی: یک تاریخ فکری نقش کسب و کار در تاریخ آمریکا توسط الاف کریستینسن مسیحی
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط مدیریت
گرایش های مرتبط مدیریت کسب و کار
مجله مجله اخلاق تجاری – Journal of Business Ethics
دانشگاه School of Management – University of Michigan-Flint – USA
کد محصول E7859
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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In the Preface to Progressive Business, business historian Christian Olaf Christiansen enlightens the reader on the purpose of his treatise: to fnd out whether there is an historical basis for two contradictory (and popular) characterizations of business: that is, whether businesses are motivated for the profts—or they are in it to achieve various social purposes. Christiansen stays true to exploring and digging throughout his work, focusing on “progressive business,” its moral selfgovernance, and its critics in the history of the American experiment. Christiansen defnes “market reformism” (his self-conceived description of progressive business) as an internal—and not external—reform. That is, as one having ambivalence toward the proft motive and self-interest, and critical of free market economics, while preferring voluntary social responsibility in lieu of government regulation. In his study, Christiansen identifes three eras in American history: paternalistic market reformism, i.e., the First Great Transformation; managerial market reformism, i.e., the New Deal era; and entrepreneurial market reformism, i.e., the Second Great Transformation. The First Great Transformation, an era of paternalistic market reformism taking place in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, focuses on ideas of proft sharing, company unions and towns, private philanthropy, and reforming the workplace from within (rather than through government edict). During this era, the emerging concept of “social responsibility” went beyond simply wages, reports Christiansen, with Christianity (and self-interest as a superior moral doctrine) trumping classical liberal political economy. At its essence, this worker-centric approach is based on the benevolent factory owner who offers his employees higher wages and improved working conditions than those of his competitors. According to Christiansen, criticism from the radical and reformist left during this era recognized issues of inequality, poverty, lack of worker autonomy and self-rule, and intolerable working conditions. Classical liberals also criticized the First Great Transformation’s misuse of state power and the interference in the “natural” system of liberty. In contrast to this era of market reformism, says Christiansen, solutions ofered by the radical and reform left included stronger unionism, reduced length of the workday, the establishment of child labor and factory safety legislation, and a more active role for the state. Classical liberals’ solutions to this era included free trade, no tarifs, reduced taxes, the sanctity of private property, and a reliance on economic self-interest leading to the best aggregate social welfare.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد مرور کسب و کار تصاعدی: نقش کسب و کار در تاریخ آمریکا – اسپرینگر 2018 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2017
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 15 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه اسپرینگر
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Secure Persuasive Business Models and Business Model Innovation in a World of 5G
ترجمه عنوان مقاله مدل های کسب و کار تشویقی و نوآوری مدل کسب و کار در دنیای نسل 5
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط مدیریت
گرایش های مرتبط مدیریت کسب و کار، نوآوری تکنولوژی
مجله ارتباطات شخصی بی سیم – Wireless Personal Communications
دانشگاه Business Development and Technology – Aarhus University – Denmark
کلمات کلیدی تکنولوژی اطمینان، مدل های کسب و کار تشویقی، نوآوری مدل کسب و کار، 5G
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی Persuasive technology, Persuasive business models, Business model innovation, 5G
کد محصول E7860
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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1 Introduction

In the past 10 years sensor-, wireless and persuasive technologies in our everyday life have increased many-fold. We are moving towards a world of 5G, which soon will have to adjust to persuasive technologies [4, 5, 15, 16, 18, 19]. As a result, business will have to deal with the latter. Studying persuasive technologies evolvement and their impact on our daily lives and routines is still at an early stage of scientific achievements. However, many jump to the conclusion that the extent to which persuasive technologies will affect our future lives is presumably tremendous [6, 15]. Technologies will soon be developed so that all five human sensors technically can be embedded in e.g. any kind of product, device, material and production technology [15–20, 23] (Fig. 1). Researchers, businesses and public players alike are devoting themselves to understanding how these different persuasive technologies might be designed, so that remunerative technologies, behavior and business models are within reach and can be created, captured, delivered, received as well as consumed [8] in a new, and hopefully sustainable, 5G world. 5G and persuasive business models go along with high expectations for better business and a noticeable impact on the global economy. Especially the health care and well care sectors are expected to overcome some of their high economic burden with the help of persuasive technologies—but also furniture, textile, tourist and service industry are expected to gain enormous benefits from these technologies and related business models. Persuasive technology has digital components embedded and is situated within two dimensions. The first dimension contains knowledge about how people and things can be triggered to change behavior. A second dimension contains the technology, in which Information Communication Technology [ICT] is in some way embedded and can ‘‘communicate’’ with the human, thing or both in combination. Technology is now capable of influencing all the senses [15, 16, 18] and in the future even more advanced [15, 17, 19–21, 23]. This could be a mobile sending certain sounds or light, so that a certain reaction—a behavior—is triggered and e.g. a biker can be prevented to be killed under a truck turning right (Fig. 2). Right-turn accidents are a big problem in the increasingly busy traffic across Europe. The accidents often have fatal consequences and are a daily concern for truck- and bus drivers. On average in e.g. EU 3,5 people lose their lives every day due to right-turn accidents.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد مدل های کسب و کار تشویقی در دنیای نسل 5 – اسپرینگر 2017 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.


I. INTRODUCTION

Preventing network attacks is one of the most difficult tasks in the field of information systems protection. Most modern systems have a distributed structure, their architecture is based on the use of network technologies. And ensuring the operability of such systems depends on the ability to resist malicious acts that are aimed at disrupting the work of both the network itself and the information system functioning within its framework. One of the most dangerous types of criminal activities on the Internet are the so-called DDoS-attacks. The methods used by criminals are constantly evolving and improving, from single attempts they go to corporate development. At the same time, modern systems for detecting intrusions and attacks are far from perfect and insufficiently effective from the point of view of security decisions. Therefore, the methods of work in this direction are necessary and relevant.

II. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM

Over the past few months, we have witnessed the emergence of a new attack model, rapidly gaining popularity among hackers. She was given the title “Pulsovaya Wave”. Such a hacker attack, conducted on the computer system, is characterized primarily by short, repetitive, at regular intervals, pulses whose peak power can reach 350 Gbit/s. This attack is illustrated in Fig. 1 [1]. Such an attack can last a very long time. Pulse Wave attack has a number of advantages. First, so attackers can attack multiple targets at once. When the impulse stops, and a short lull sets in, the botnet does not stand idle, but attacks another target. Secondly, such attacks are extremely inconvenient for standard DDoS protection systems , which are based on hybrid protection techniques, that is, the first defense line is hardware on-premise products, and the second layer of protection is cloud solutions. The fact is that each impulse disconnects the equipment of the target company. To restore performance after one peak, this attack takes several minutes, but the first pulse is followed by the second, third and so on. This allows the attacker to stretch the DDoS attack for a long time and interferes with the correct operation of the security solutions. Thus, the hardware solution have neither the time nor the bandwidth to request aid cloud and server “crashes”.

III. MODELING ATTACK

For the study of DDoS-attacks “Pulse Wave” protection and development has created a model of the network consisting of a server, the user, the attacker and the gateway router. The server is located in the Net 2 has a static IP = 10.0.0.1 and is responsible for processing requests and come for logging information about them. The server is written in language python using the framework flask. Users and Attackers are on the second network Net 1. Their IP are generated randomly from the address pool 11.0.0.0/24 . Also there is A router connecting these two networks and performing the function of a firewall. The scheme of the network model is shown in Fig. 2.


1. Introduction

Accounting information plays two primary roles in credit contract relationships (Beatty, 2008). First, it helps banks and other lenders evaluate credit risk (ex ante, mitigating the problem of adverse selection). Second, it helps monitor credit risk over the life of the debt contract through financial covenants (ex post, mitigating the problem of moral risk). The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of mandatory IFRS adoption in Brazil on the relevance of accounting information to credit risk assessment and on loan contract terms. Over 120 jurisdictions―including developed, emerging, and developing economies―either permit or require the use of IFRS in financial reporting. Recent studies document a number of positive consequences to the equity markets associated with the introduction of IFRS, such as increased market liquidity, reduced equity cost, increased inflow of foreign investment, improvements in analyst forecast accuracy, and reduced insider information asymmetry (Brochet, Jagolinzer, & Riedl, 2013; Byard, Li, & Yu, 2011; Daske, Hail, Leuz, & Verdi, 2008; DeFond, Hu, Hung, & Li, 2011; Li, 2010; Lima, 2011; Tan, Wang, & Welker, 2011). However, prior research has primarily focused on the usefulness of IFRS to investors, with limited research examining the usefulness of IFRS to creditors. As an example, several studies have analyzed the effect of IFRS adoption in the Brazilian capital market instead of the credit market. Considering the informational aspect, Lima, Lima, Carvalho, and Lima (2010) investigated whether underlying firm-level incentives influence firms’ compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) convergence practices and whether this adoption impacts firms’ cost of equity capital and market liquidity in Brazil—a setting with a poor institutional environment but high growth opportunities—using a sample of 54 companies from the São Paulo Stock Exchange. The results indicate that firm-level incentives are important drivers of compliance with IFRS convergence practices. The results suggest that firms that (a) are larger, (b) are more exposed to international markets, and (c) have greater financing needs are more likely to adopt IFRS practices by implementing material changes in their accounting policies. The economic consequence analysis shows that cost of capital does not seem to be related to any of the convergence measures used. However, there is a statistically significant relationship between all the market liquidity variables and the IASCI, indicating that companies that best meet the convergence requirements have lower trading costs and greater liquidity, and their share price is less susceptible to the influence of individual investors. Following the same results, Santos and Cavalcante (2014) state that the adoption of IFRS in Brazil contributed to an increase in the information relevance of accounting profits of publicly traded companies. In the same sense, Almeida and Rodrigues (2017) examined the effects of interactions among IFRS adoption, analyst coverage, and cross-listings in the United States on the voluntary disclosure of Brazilian public companies. They found a significant positive shift on voluntary disclosure incentives among cross-listed firms from the IFRS pre-adoption period to the post-adoption period. They also found that analyst coverage has a positive association with voluntary disclosure over the IFRS adoption process; however, the interaction between IFRS adoption and analysts affects only environmental and social disclosure positively.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2018
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 17 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه الزویر
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Generalists and specialists in the credit market
ترجمه عنوان مقاله جامع عموم و متخصصین بازار اعتباری
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط مدیریت، اقتصاد
گرایش های مرتبط بانکداری، اقتصاد پول و بانکداری
مجله مجله بانکداری و سرمایه گذاری – Journal of Banking and Finance
دانشگاه University College London – University of Oxford – UK
کلمات کلیدی وام بانکی، تئوری نمونه کارها، فروش آتش، تنوع، خطر سیستمیک
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی Bank lending, Portfolio theory, Fire sales, Diversification, Systemic risk
کد محصول E7851
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1. Introduction

Understanding the structure of the credit market is paramount to ensure the role of the banking system as an efficient liquidity and credit allocation mechanism. Failure to manage and regulate the banking system can in fact have disastrous externalities, as exemplified by experiences of financial crises (Hoggarth et al., 2002; Dell’Ariccia et al., 2008). The shape of credit interactions between banks and the real economy is, therefore, a key element in the analysis, but little is known about how this credit network looks like. Do most banks hold diversified loan portfolios and therefore provide liquidity to firms from all industries of the economy? Are there specialists that focus their portfolio on a small number of industries? If so, do different specialists focus on different industries? Are there significant differences in the risk profiles of these institutions? We tackle these questions in this paper. Whether banks should diversify their loan portfolios or focus on a small number of industries is an important yet open research question. For what follows, we define generalist banks as those banks that diversify their loan portfolios across many different industries, thereby interacting with a very heterogeneous set of firms. We also define specialist banks as those banks that hold more concentrated portfolios and only interact with firms from a relatively small subset of industries.1 Like other investors, banks face a trade-off in choosing their diversification levels. On the one hand, generalist banks should be, through the benefits of diversification, less vulnerable to firm- or industry-specific shocks. On the other hand, gaining industry-specific expertise, e.g., via more efficient screening and monitoring of particular types of firms, is valuable to banks (Stomper, 2006). By focusing on relatively few types of businesses, specialist banks might therefore be able to improve their performance at the cost of becoming more vulnerable to industry-specific shocks. In addition, banks face time-varying external constraints (e.g., regulatory) that may further encourage either diversification or specialization.2 From this perspective, it is not surprising that banks’ diversification levels are found to be rather heterogeneous empirically (e.g., Acharya et al., 2006; Hayden et al., 2007; Tabak et al., 2011). Nevertheless, little is known about the typical pattern of interactions between banks and the real economy, and the prevalence of generalists and specialists in these systems. A related question is whether specialist banks are indeed special, i.e., do specialist banks tend to occupy niches? In a world where specialist banks possess comparative advantages in dealing with firms from certain industries (e.g., via gaining superior information about their counterparties), they should focus their activities on specialist industries where few other banks are present. In this regard, recent research highlights the role of overlapping portfolios as a potential source of systemic risk (Wagner, 2011; Caccioli et al., 2014; Greenwood et al., 2015; Glasserman and Young, 2015). The idea is that, by holding common assets, banks are not only prone to the same direct shocks, but also to systemic asset liquidations of other banks. Little is known, however, about how overlapping bank portfolios are in the real world.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد جامع عموم و متخصصین بازار اعتباری – الزویر 2018 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2018
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 11 صفحه
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منتشر شده در نشریه الزویر
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Credit markets under asymmetric information regarding the law
ترجمه عنوان مقاله بازارهای اعتباری تحت عدم تقارن اطلاعاتی در رابطه با قانون
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط اقتصاد
گرایش های مرتبط اقتصاد مالی، اقتصاد پولی، اقتصاد پول و بانکداری
مجله مجله اقتصادی و سرمایه گذاری آمریکای شمالی – North American Journal of Economics and Finance
دانشگاه Department of Economics – University of Turku – Finland
کلمات کلیدی بانکداری، واسطه مالی، مقررات اعتباری، وثیقه، قانون و امور مالی
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی Banking, Financial intermediation, Credit rationing, Collateral, Law and finance
کد محصول E7852
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1. Introduction

This paper explores asymmetric information regarding the law in credit markets. The law and judicial system are assumed to be unambiguous and reliable so that the decisions are foreseeable to everyone who has legal expertise. The problem is that legally-naive lenders lack legal expertise. The law often provides special protection to a few debt categories. La Porta, Lopez-de-Silanes, and Shleifer (1998), for example, mention that in many countries payments to secured lenders are subordinated to payments to the government and workers, who have absolute priority. These laws may cause unexpected losses to legally-naive lenders whose loans are fully secured. In the UK, the law offers several orders of seniority between secured loans (Franks & Sussman, 2005). Payments to fixed charge security holders are, for instance, senior to the payments to lenders that have floating charge security. The latter lenders may suffer unexpected losses if they are legally-naive and assume that the floating charge security protects their investments. One legal attribute that may strongly reduce the market value of the collateral asset and thereby cause unexpected losses to legally-naive lenders is an encumbrance (Glen, 2011). In the US, the homestead exemption protects guarantors in most states and varies strongly among states (Gropp, Scholz, & White, 1997). The value of personal guarantee may be 1 million dollars if the guarantor lives in state A, or zero if they live in state B. The latter scenario may cause unexpected losses to lenders. Developing countries have more problems. The ownership of the collateral asset may be unclear (de Soto, 2000; Glen, 2011).1 The law in the jurisdiction may be obscure or overly complicated (de Soto, 2000; Glen, 2011). In an informal property system, titling requirements and issues of enforceability will be based on community norms and local knowledge. An outside lender may have neither the knowledge nor ready access to peculiar local information or knowledge (de Soto, 2000; Glen, 2011). Consequently, direct investments by legally-naive lenders may lead to dramatic losses and the non-intermediated market may dry up as a result. These examples raise fundamental questions. What are the impacts of asymmetric information regarding the law in credit markets? How does it differ from the standard form of asymmetric information? How can it be eliminated?

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد بازارهای اعتباری تحت عدم تقارن اطلاعاتی – الزویر 2018 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2018
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 42 صفحه
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منتشر شده در نشریه الزویر
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Recent Advances in Convolutional Neural Networks
ترجمه عنوان مقاله پیشرفت های اخیر در شبکه عصبی پیچشی
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط مهندسی کامپیوتر، فناوری اطلاعات
گرایش های مرتبط شبکه های کامپیوتری
مجله الگو شناسی – Pattern Recognition
دانشگاه ROSE Lab – Nanyang Technological University – Singapore
کلمات کلیدی شبکه عصبی Convolutional، یادگیری عمیق
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی Convolutional Neural Network, Deep learning
کد محصول E7828
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1. Introduction

Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is a well-known deep learning architecture inspired by the natural visual perception mechanism of the living creatures. In 1959, Hubel & Wiesel [1] found that cells in animal visual cortex are responsible for detecting light in receptive fields. Inspired by this discovery, Kunihiko Fukushima proposed the neocognitron in 1980 [2], which could be regarded as the predecessor of CNN. In 1990, LeCun et al. [3] published the seminal paper establishing the modern framework of CNN, and later improved it in [4]. They developed a multi-layer artificial neural network called LeNet-5 which could classify handwritten digits. Like other neural networks, LeNet-5 has multiple layers and can be trained with the backpropagation algorithm [5]. It can obtain effective representations of the original image, which makes it possible to recognize visual patterns directly from raw pixels with little-to-none preprocessing. A parallel study of Zhang et al. [6] used a shift-invariant artificial neural network (SIANN) to recognize characters from an image. However, due to the lack of large training data and computing power at that time, their networks can not perform well on more complex problems, e.g., large-scale image and video classification. Since 2006, many methods have been developed to overcome the difficulties encountered in training deep CNNs [7–10]. Most notably, Krizhevsky et al.proposed a classic CNN architecture and showed significant improvements upon previous methods on the image classification task. The overall architecture of their method, i.e., AlexNet [8], is similar to LeNet-5 but with a deeper structure. With the success of AlexNet, many works have been proposed to improve its performance. Among them, four representative works are ZFNet [11], VGGNet [9], GoogleNet [10] and ResNet [12]. From the evolution of the architectures, a typical trend is that the networks are getting deeper, e.g., ResNet, which won the champion of ILSVRC 2015, is about 20 times deeper than AlexNet and 8 times deeper than VGGNet. By increasing depth, the network can better approximate the target function with increased nonlinearity and get better feature representations. However, it also increases the complexity of the network, which makes the network be more difficult to optimize and easier to get overfitting. Along this way, various methods have been proposed to deal with these problems in various aspects. In this paper, we try to give a comprehensive review of recent advances and give some thorough discussions.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد پیشرفت های اخیر در شبکه عصبی پیچشی – الزویر 2018 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.

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