مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2017
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 14 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه هینداوی
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Melatonin as an Anti-Inflammatory Agent Modulating Inflammasome Activation
ترجمه عنوان مقاله ملاتونین به عنوان تعدیل کردن عامل ضد التهابی فعال سازی اینفلامازوم
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط پزشکی
گرایش های مرتبط غدد و متابولیسم
مجله مجله بین المللی غدد درون ریز – International Journal of Endocrinology
دانشگاه Anatomy and Physiopathology Division – University of Brescia – Italy
شناسه دیجیتال – doi
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1835195
کد محصول E8286
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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بخشی از متن مقاله:
1. Melatonin

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is an endogenous indoleamine widely distributed in plants, unicellular organisms, algae, bacteria, invertebrates, and vertebrates [1–3]. In vertebrates, circulating melatonin is largely derived from the pineal gland [2, 4–6], although there are other organs such as gastrointestinal tract, epithelial hair follicles, skin, retina, salivary glands, platelets, and lymphocytes that produce melatonin [5, 7–11]. Specialized photoreceptive cells in the retina detect a restricted bandwidth of visible light; this information projects directly to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the central circadian pacemaker, that triggers the pineal gland to produce this indoleamine during darkness [6, 12–14]. The maximal melatonin plasma concentration occurs usually 3–5 hours after darkness onset, and its level during the daily light period is low or even undetectable [15, 16]. The synthesis of melatonin is a multistep process, which starts from the essential aromatic amino tryptophan that is picked up from the blood circulation and hydroxylated, by tryptophan hydroxylase, in 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). 5-HTP is converted to serotonin by the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, and serotonin is subsequently converted into N-acetylserotonin (NAS) by the enzyme arylalkylamine Nacetyltransferase. The final step of melatonin synthesis is the conversion of NAS to melatonin by hydroxyindole-Omethyl transferase [3, 17–19]. Pineal melatonin is immediately released into the blood stream in a circadian manner in response to the above reported photoperiodic information received via the retinopineal pathway [20–22]. Interestingly, most of the extrapineal organs, except for the retina, may not produce melatonin in a circadian manner and it is not normally released into the blood stream in any significant amount [7, 21, 23]. In these organs, melatonin presumably functions mainly as an antioxidant to protect cells from oxidative damage [7, 14, 24]. There are three major known pathways of melatonin degradation: (a) the classical hepatic catabolic pathway that generates 6-hydroxymelatonin that is then excreted via the kidney as a sulphate conjugate [3, 5, 25, 26]; (b) the alternative indolic pathway that produces 5-methoxyindole acetic acid or 5-methoxytryptophol [27, 28]; and (c) the kynuric pathway that produces N1 -acetyl-N2 -formyl-5-kynuramine (AFMK) [29–31]. In addition to the antioxidant properties of melatonin, AFMK and N1 -acetyl-5-methoxykinuramine (AMK) are two important melatonin metabolites that have excellent radical scavenging activity [5, 32, 33].

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد ملاتونین: تعدیل کننده عامل ضد التهابی – هینداوی 2017 اولین بار در سایت آی اس آی دانلود ISIDL. پدیدار شد.

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