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مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2018
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 19 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه الزویر
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Cooperation-based multi-hop routing protocol for cognitive radio networks
ترجمه عنوان مقاله پروتکل مسیریابی چند منظوره برای شبکه های رادیویی شناختی مبتنی بر مشارکت
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط مهندسی کامپیوتر، فناوری اطلاعات
گرایش های مرتبط شبکه های کامپیوتری
مجله مجله شبکه و برنامه های کامپیوتری – ournal of Network and Computer Applications
دانشگاه Computer and Systems Engineering – Alexandria University – Egypt
کلمات کلیدی شبکه های رادیویی شناختی، ارتباطات تعاونی، پروتکل های مسیریابی
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی Cognitive Radio Networks, Cooperative Communication, Routing Protocols
کد محصول E7830
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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بخشی از متن مقاله:
1. Introduction

Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) was proposed as a promising solution for the spectrum scarcity problem. This problem is increasing more and more and that is why CRNs are imminent to pervade into all fields of wireless communications. We backup this assertion with the following observations. First, with the inherent inefficiency of the static spectrum licensing policies [1] and proliferation of spectrum accessing mobile and connected devices [2], we are quickly heading towards a wireless spectrum crisis [3]. Second, the spectrum regulatory authorities are now working towards new regulations allowing for wireless spectrum reuse by unlicensed users [4]. These regulations allow the unlicensed secondary users (SUs) to access the spectrum as long as needs of the licensed primary users (PUs) are satisfied. One of the emerging use cases of Cognitive Radios is 5G. 5G networks utilize the concept of Licensed-Assisted- Access (LAA) [5], which basically says that, in order to get very high rates (and due to spectrum scarcity), the network does not just rely on the licensed part of the spectrum, but also uses part of the unlicensed and shared spectrum. However, using the shared spectrum should be done carefully to avoid interference between different parties. For example, 5G should be able to provide cellular access to IoT networks, which are mainly private networks that consist of many devices which should co-exist. Since they are supposed to use the same shared spectrum as that of WiFi, then in such a scenario the WiFi access points could act as the primary users, while the IoT devices are secondary ones. In such a network, powerful nodes (which have multiple antennas for example) should use their capabilities to avoid interfering with the less powerful ones. In order to use the Cognitive Radio (CR) in practice, many challenges need to be considered. Since one of the biggest goals is ensuring the integrity of the PU transmissions, all components of the CR cycle are developed such that this goal is attained [6]. For example, various spectrum sensing and sharing techniques have been developed, each with varying levels of complexity and efficiency[7]. In addition, different spectrum management policies have been envisioned which are better suited for different CR scenarios. For example, an overlay access policy allows a SU to access a spectrum only if a PU is not detected. In contrast, an underlay access policy would allow the coexistence of PU and SU transmissions provided that the level of interference incurred at the PU is not excessive. Developing such systems is therefore by no means an easy feat, and many practical challenges arise which makes designing such systems a challenging task [7, 8].

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد پروتکل مسیریابی چند منظوره برای شبکه های رادیویی – الزویر 2018 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2018
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 10 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه IEEE
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Distributed Control of Inverter-Interfaced Microgrids with Bounded Transient Line Currents
ترجمه عنوان مقاله کنترل توزیع ریزشبکه های اینورتر متصل با جریان خطی گذرا محدود
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط مهندسی برق
گرایش های مرتبط مهندسی الکترونیک، سیستم های قدرت
مجله معاملات در انفورماتیک صنعتی – Transactions on Industrial Informatics
دانشگاه Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering – Lehigh University – USA
کلمات کلیدی میکروگرید های متقابل اینورتر، ژنراتور توزیع شده، جریان خطی گذرا، خطی سازی بازخورد
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی —Inverter-interfaced microgrids, distributed generator, transient line current, feedback linearization
کد محصول E7831
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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بخشی از متن مقاله:
I. INTRODUCTION

nverter-interfaced distributed generator (DG) is the basic building block of the rising microgrid paradigm [1]. Various types of DG such as photovoltaic, wind turbine and fuel cell are interfaced to the microgrid through power electronic converters/ inverters [2]. The inverter-interfaced DGs are flexible and have fast response speed. Such advantages make DGs easier to operate and control than conventional synchronous generators (SGs) [3]. However, controlling microgrids consisted of such DGs are challenging due to the negligible inertia, intermittent generations, together with severe load changes. If the challenges are not handled properly, the advantages and potentials of the inverter-interfaced microgrid cannot be fully unlocked. Since microgrid is one of the key components for the future smart grid, its performance somehow determines whether the successful deployment of smart grid can be achieved. Thus, operation and control of microgrids have been a hot research area over the last decade. There are significant differences between traditional large-scale power systems and inverter-interfaced microgrids [4]. Traditional control solutions, which have been proven to be effective for large-scale power systems, cannot be introduced to microgrids without modifications [4]. The first and the easiest type of solutions is to increase the “virtual” inertia of the inverter-interfaced microgrids so that microgrids can behave similarly to the traditional power systems [5]. However, these solutions cannot fully unleash the potential of microgrids in terms of flexibility and response speed. The second category of solutions is to model such microgrids as fully decoupled subsystems with impacts of neighboring subsystems formulated as measurable disturbances. At primary control level, droop and inner cascaded loops of proportional-integral (PI) controls are deployed to track the control references regulated by the upper secondary control level. Since microgrids are modeled similar to that of unmanned vehicle systems that have no physical connections among subsystems, many existing solutions in cooperative control [6-7], optimal control [8-9] and game theory [10-11] can be introduced. In the past years, there are many successful developments along this route. These works definitely promote researches on microgrid controls and help bridge the gaps among related societies, especially controls, power systems, and power electronics [5-11]. However, there are still many open problems that deserve further investigation.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد کنترل توزیع ریزشبکه های اینورتر متصل با جریان خطی – IEEE 2018 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2017
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 6 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه IEEE
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Intelligent Voltage Regulator to Distributed Voltage Control in Smart Grids
ترجمه عنوان مقاله رگلاتور هوشمند ولتاژ در کنترل ولتاژ توزیع شده در شبکه های هوشمند
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط مهندسی برق، فناوری اطلاعات، کامپیوتر
گرایش های مرتبط مهندسی الکترونیک، سیستم های قدرت، شبکه های کامپیوتری
مجله 52امین کنفرانس مهندسی برق دانشگاه بین المللی – 52nd International Universities Power Engineering Conference
دانشگاه Fed. Univ. Santa Maria – Brazil
کلمات کلیدی رگولاتور ولتاژ، کنترل ولتاژ، شبکه های هوشمند، متغیرهای بار، کیفیت، تامین قدرت، منطق فازی، اتوماسیون، منابع انرژی توزیع شده، بار انعطاف پذیر
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی voltage regulator, voltage control, smart grids, on load tap changer, quality, power supply, fuzzy logic, automation, distributed energy resources, flexible load
کد محصول E7832
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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بخشی از متن مقاله:
I. INTRODUCTION

Considering the current evolution of electric power systems and the gradual implementation of distribution automation resources, telemetry, advanced algorithms for reconfiguration, load forecasting, micro and distributed mini generation, among others, voltage control has a fundamental role in the application and maintenance of these important resources in distribution system [1], [2]. The execution of maneuvers for the reconfiguration of feeders is a common and necessary activity in urban feeders, generally represented by shorter and more heavily loaded networks. On the other hand, rural or more extensive feeders, who serve several smaller municipalities throughout their area of operation, generally have their topology altered due of eventual contingencies or in cases of scheduled shutdowns. In these cases the voltage regulators must have their adjustments previously evaluated for these different operating conditions [3], [4], [5]. In addition, the seasonal variations of the load and the changes occurring throughout the day such as the transitions between the load levels, presence of distributed generation, the exit of large blocks of load at peak times and the return of these same loads after the end of the hourly range due time of use tariffs, have a significant impact on voltage levels [6], [7]. This paper presents the developments that are being carried out by State Electricity Distribution Company (CEEE-D) and Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM) with incentives from the Electrical Energy National Agency through ANEEL Research and development (R&D) project ANEEL Code PD5707-4301/2015 named “Intelligent Dynamic Control for voltage regulators and supervisory systems (CDI-RT) in a smart grid environment”. This R&D project continues the evolution process and maturation of research carried out in the R&D project finished in 2013 named “Efficient use of the innovative potential of smart grids in the improvement of the management of the quality of electric energy in distribution systems”, developed by Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM) and CEEE-D. The objective is to develop a head series design of an intelligent dynamic controller for voltage regulators (CDI-RT) that can operates automatically based on the commands coming from the developed methodology. The aim is to contribute to increase the operational efficiency of the voltage regulators installed in the distribution systems and improve the quality of the offered services, reduce the costs associated with the displacements of teams for parameterization and adjustments of the voltage regulators and reduction of penalties for voltage levels violations. The TAP Eletro Company is a partner of this project and will contribute in the manufacture of the head series design.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد رگلاتور هوشمند ولتاژ در کنترل ولتاژ توزیع شده – IEEE 2017 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.


مشخصات مقاله انتشار مقاله سال 2018 تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 9 صفحه هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد. منتشر شده در نشریه IEEE نوع مقاله ISI عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Model for polluted insulator flashover under AC or DC voltage ترجمه عنوان مقاله مدلی برای تخلیه الکتریکی غیر عادی عایق آلوده در ولتاژ AC یا DC فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF رشته های مرتبط مهندسی برق گرایش های مرتبط مهندسی الکترونیک، سیستم های قدرت مجله معاملات بر دی الکتریک و عایق برق – Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation دانشگاه Laboratoire de Recherche en Electrotechnique – Algiers – Algeria کلمات کلیدی flashover، عایق آلوده، رژیم پایدار، مدل استاتیک، شرایط بحرانی، رژیم ناپایدار، مدل پویا کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی flashover, polluted insulators, stable regime, static model, critical conditions, unstable regime, dynamic model کد محصول E7833 وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید. دانلود رایگان مقاله دانلود رایگان مقاله انگلیسی سفارش ترجمه این مقاله سفارش ترجمه این مقاله


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2018
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 6 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه IEEE
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Evaluation of high-voltage AC cable grounding systems based on the real-time monitoring and theoretical calculation of grounding currents
ترجمه عنوان مقاله ارزیابی سیستم کابل زمینی AC با ولتاژ بالا مبتنی بر نظارت زمان واقعی و محاسبه نظری جریان های زمینی
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط مهندسی برق
گرایش های مرتبط مهندسی الکترونیک، سیستم های قدرت
مجله موسسه مهندسی و فناوری – The institution of Engineering and Technology
دانشگاه School of Electrical and Information Engineering – Tianjin University – China
کد محصول E7834
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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بخشی از متن مقاله:
1 Introduction

For high-voltage (HV) AC cable transmission systems, three separate single-core cables are frequently used instead of threecore cables. In practise, to suppress the induced voltages in sheaths, metal sheaths of HV cables are cross-bonded at each end of the cable section. The cross-bonding introduces return paths for the grounding currents [1, 2]. It is expected that, as a result of crossbonding, the voltages induced in the metal sheaths will not exceed the limit specified in GB50217-2007 [3], and the grounding currents will be minimised, leading to less heat generation in the metal sheaths [4, 5]. However, the effectiveness of the grounding may be reduced due to water seepage into cross-connected boxes, failure of outer sheath insulation, or damages by termites, causing more heat emission from the metal sheaths and reduction of the current carrying capacity of HV cables [6, 7]. Marzinotto and Mazzanti [8] reported the feasibility of cable sheath fault detection by monitoring grounding currents at the ends of cross-bonding sections. Dong et al. [9, 10] established a numerical model to simulate the currents in cross-bonded cable sheaths and then analysed the sheaths currents under typical fault conditions, including an open-circuit fault in a metal sheath, short-circuit fault in cross-bonded boxes and short-circuit faults due to the breakdown between metal sheaths in joints. The status of HV cable grounding systems evaluated by grounding currents is, therefore, an important consideration for HV cables [11–13]. Status evaluation standards for cable grounding systems in Beijing have been established based on data obtained from real-time monitoring of grounding currents over the period 2010–2012, in accordance with the relevant standards Q/GDW 456-2010 established by State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) [4]. However, some erroneous judgments resulted from the application of these standards, which should, therefore, be modified. In this paper, we present the status evaluations of 93 cable grounding systems in Beijing, obtained using the standards established by SGCC. Thirteen of these systems were classified as abnormal or defective. A theoretical calculation of grounding currents was proposed. These 13 systems are re-evaluated by comparing the calculated and measured values of certain parameters. Based on this work, we propose a modification of SGCC evaluation standards.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد ارزیابی سیستم کابل زمینی AC با ولتاژ بالا – IEEE 2018 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2017
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 11 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه وایلی
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Audit partner industry specialization and audit quality: Evidence from Spain
ترجمه عنوان مقاله تخصص صنعتی شریک حسابرس و کیفیت حسابرسی: شواهدی از اسپانیا
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط حسابداری
گرایش های مرتبط حسابرسی
مجله مجله بین المللی حسابرسی – International Journal of Auditing
دانشگاه Department of Economics and Finance – IQS School of Management – Spain
کلمات کلیدی کیفیت حسابرسی، خدمات حسابرسی، تخصص حسابرس، شهرت حسابرس، تعهدات اختیاری، تخصص صنعتی، شریک حسابرسی، روند یادگیری
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی Audit quality, audit services, auditor expertise, auditor reputation, discretionary accruals, industry specialization, lead audit partner, learning process
کد محصول E7835
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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بخشی از متن مقاله:
1 | INTRODUCTION

DeAngelo (1981) defined audit quality as the joint probability that an auditor will both detect and report a material misstatement. Accordingly, the provision of high‐quality audit services requires the auditor to be competent (to be able to identify accounting misstatements) and independent (to report the detected misstatements). Lead audit partners, as the ultimate responsible for the audit report, are expected to play a fundamental role in determining the quality of audit services. Since individual auditors differ in terms of their incentives and attributes such as risk preference, expertise, ability, or cognitive style (Gul, Wu, & Yang, 2013), they should also differ with respect to the competence and independence dimensions of audit quality. It is precisely because of the importance of individual auditors’ idiosyncrasies that audit firms try to maintain consistency in the quality of audit services through control mechanisms (Gul et al., 2013; Jeppesen, 2007). A quickly growing number of empirical studies have addressed the role of individual auditors as determinants of audit quality (e.g., Aobdia, Lin, & Petacchi, 2015; Carey & Simnett, 2006; Garcia‐Blandon & Argiles, 2017; Gul et al., 2013; Knechel, Vanstraelen, & Zerni, 2015). While the industry specialization of audit firms has attracted a lot of attention (e.g., Balsam, Krishnan, & Yang, 2003; Carson, 2009; Casterella, Francis, Lewis, & Walker, 2004; Craswell, Francis, & Taylor, 1995; DeFond, Francis, & Wong, 2000; Dunn & Mayhew, 2004), few papers have investigated how the industry specialization of individual auditors impacts audit quality (Chi & Chin, 2011; Chin & Chi, 2009; Chin, Yao, & Liu, 2014; Goodwin & Wu, 2014; Zerni, 2012). These studies generally agree that industry specialization of both the audit firm and audit partners enhances audit quality. Owing to the data availability, evidence at the individual auditor level is limited to just four countries: Taiwan (Chi & Chin, 2011; Chi, Myers, Omer, & Xie, 2017; Chin et al., 2014; Chin & Chi, 2009), Sweden (Zerni, 2012), Australia (Goodwin & Wu, 2014) and China (Chen, Sun, & Wu, 2010). DeFond and Francis (2005) encouraged to further investigate audit quality at the partner level in those markets with available data. Chen et al.’s (2010) findings on the importance of legal and regulatory changes to better understand the relationship between auditors and clients stress the need to conduct empirical studies across different institutional settings. This view is even more explicit in Bedard (2012), who advocated for replication studies in any jurisdiction currently requiring engagement partner signature. The author argued that because of the importance of the institutional context (i.e., quality control policies of audit firms, regulatory inspections and interaction with client personnel in charge of governance) on the level of accountability for lead engagement partners and, given that this institutional context is largely country specific, replication studies conducted in previously uninvestigated audit markets should be welcomed.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد تخصص صنعتی شریک حسابرس و کیفیت حسابرسی – وایلی 2017 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2017
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 5 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه وایلی
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Stakeholder Orientations and Cost Management
ترجمه عنوان مقاله جهت گیری های ذی نفع و مدیریت هزینه
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط مدیریت، اقتصاد
گرایش های مرتبط اقتصاد مالی، مدیریت مالی
دانشگاه D’Amore-McKim School of Business – Northeastern University – Boston
کد محصول E7768
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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1. Introduction

Stakeholder orientation, hereby defined, reflects the relative attention a firm gives to its nonshareholding stakeholders, such as customers, employees, communities, and the natural environment (Berman, et al. 1999; Stavrou et al. 2007; Crilly and Sloan 2012).1 Accounting researchers have explored many issues surrounding external disclosure and stakeholder management (Dhaliwal et al. 2011; Moser and Martin 2012; Kim et al. 2012). Yet the implications of stakeholder orientation on a firm’s internal resource management and adjustment have remained largely unexplored. Given the growing attention paid to stakeholders by both executives and academics, it is important to understand whether stakeholder orientation affects firms’ internal management practices, including resource adjustment decisions. We examine how stakeholder orientation affects a firm’s resource adjustments, captured by SG&A cost stickiness. Cost stickiness is itself a growing body of research (e.g., Banker and Byzalov 2014). SG&A costs typically account for a significant fraction of a company’s total costs. In our sample of 19,783 observations from 1990 to 2013, the mean (median) ratio of SG&A costs to total costs (including both cost of goods sold and SG&A costs) is 32 (27) percent. Anderson et al. (2003) document that SG&A costs are sticky in that they decrease less when sales fall than they increase when sales rise by an equivalent amount. Anderson et al. (2003) propose two theories underlying the observed cost stickiness: adjustment cost theory and agency theory. Adjustment cost theory suggests that firms incur adjustment costs (e.g., severance pay to dismissed employees, loss of employee morale, or training costs for new employees) when making resource capacity adjustments. When sales increase, managers must acquire the required resources, whereas when sales decrease, managers may intentionally delay reducing resource capacity to avoid adjustment costs, which results in cost stickiness (Banker et al. 2013). Agency costs can also contribute to cost stickiness because managers have empire building incentives or “a preference for a quiet life,” such that they refrain from cutting slack resources when sales decline. Subsequent work has identified factors associated with cost stickiness, including prior activity change, managerial expectations, and incentives (Chen et al. 2012; Dierynck et al. 2012; Banker and Byzalov 2014). Stakeholders such as customers, employees, communities, and the environment can directly or indirectly influence a firm’s operations. We focus on customer relations and employee relations as they capture corporate orientation toward two primary stakeholder groups: customers and employees (Berman et al. 1999; Kim et al. 2012). By examining different stakeholder areas, we are able to distinguish heterogeneous effects of various stakeholder orientations on resource adjustments.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد جهت گیری های ذی نفع و مدیریت هزینه – وایلی 2017 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2017
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 36 صفحه
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منتشر شده در نشریه امرالد
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله The sticky cost phenomenon at the local government level: empirical evidence from Greece
ترجمه عنوان مقاله پدیده چسبندگی هزینه در سطح دولت محلی: شواهد تجربی از یونان
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط مدیریت، اقتصاد
گرایش های مرتبط اقتصاد مالی، مدیریت مالی
مجله مجله تحقیقات حسابداری کاربردی – Journal of Applied Accounting Research
دانشگاه Athens University of Economics and Business – Athens – Greece
کلمات کلیدی بخش عمومی، پدیده هزینه چسبنده، رفتار هزینه ها، دولت های محلی، یونان
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی Public Sector, Sticky Cost Phenomenon, Cost behaviour, Local governments, Greece
کد محصول E7769
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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1. Introduction

Monitoring and understanding how costs “behave” in the public sector could help towards making it more effective through the better allocation and management of expenditures. Moreover, rational management of expenditures could ideally lead to the provision of better services, and eventually to more satisfied constituents. In this realm, the “sticky cost” phenomenon that has recently received much attention in the private sector accounting literature could provide useful insights. This new theory was introduced by Anderson, Banker and Janakiraman in their seminal paper in 2003 and characterizes costs as sticky if they decrease less when activity levels decline than in comparison to how much they rise when activity levels increase. Sticky cost phenomenon has been studied in several research works following the seminal work of Anderson et al. (2003). These studies have enriched the fundamental findings by providing evidence of asymmetric cost behaviour across different cost categories, firms and industries of the private sector (Subramaniam and Weidenmier, 2003; Chen et al., 2012; Dierynck et al., 2012; Kama and Weiss, 2013; Banker et al., 2013, Banker and Byzalov, 2014). The starting point in the sticky cost framework is that many, but not all, costs arise as a result of deliberate resource commitment decisions made by managers. According to Anderson et al. (2003), sticky cost behaviour may be created because managers do not deliberately reduce resources that are not necessary to support the reduced activity level. However, cost stickiness may not only occur thanks to behavioural reasons but thanks to economic reasons as well. While management action and its effect on cost behaviour have been studied in the private sector, the public sector has been understudied even though the public sector decision-making could influence cost behaviour as well. The interrelation of politicians with managers creates an interesting setting for decision-making in the public sector, with the existence of strong political influence affecting sound economic rationality (Robinson and Brumby, 2005). At the same time, politicians’ self-interest for getting re-elected and bureaucrats’ career concerns drive both groups to invest in short-termism (Garrí, 2010).

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد پدیده چسبندگی هزینه در سطح دولت محلی – امرالد 2017 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2018
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 15 صفحه
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منتشر شده در نشریه الزویر
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Enabling distributed intelligence assisted Future Internet of Things Controller (FITC)
ترجمه عنوان مقاله فعالسازی هوش توزیع شده با کمک کنترل کننده اینترنت اشیای آینده (FITC)
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط مهندسی کامپیوتر، فناوری اطلاعات
گرایش های مرتبط هوش مصنوعی، اینترنت و شبکه های گسترده، سامانه های شبکه ای، شبکه های کامپیوتری
مجله محاسبات و انفورماتیک کاربردی – Applied Computing and Informatics
دانشگاه Department of Computer and Systems Sciences (DSV) – Stockholm University – Sweden
کلمات کلیدی اینترنت آینده، اینترنت اشیا، محاسبات لبه، هوش توزیع شده، شبکه اعتماد
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی Future Internet, Internet of Things, Edge computing, Distributed intelligence, Belief-network
کد محصول E7739
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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1. Introduction

Future Internet is expected to be driven by the prevalence of Internet of Things (IoT) where it is envisioned that anything can be connected [1]. The hype around IoT is that it is the next technological revolution of the current world [2] where hundreds of billions of things will be interconnected. IoT has started to shape into reality from its hype by and large due to recent advancements in ubiquitous technologies such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)/Near Field Communication (NFC), Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN), high speed communication (4G/5G), Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), etc. Advanced developments in the sensing and actuating technologies also contribute to the rise of the IoT popularity. This rise in connected things has already taken its number beyond current world’s population and expected to impact every aspect of human life. Currently, there are almost two connected things for every human. The ratio is expected only to accelerate in the coming days. The challenge of collecting and sharing the context information (ConIn) from these connected things has been addressed in earlier research [3–8]. The challenge has been addressed by architecting IoT platforms via mostly middleware solutions. Each middleware solution addresses different IoT challenges; for example, device management, context information collection and sharing, context-awareness, interoperability, etc. [4]. However, there is no single middleware solution or IoT platform that solves all these IoT challenges. An ideal IoT platform capable of providing solutions to all IoT aspects has not yet been designed [4]. Furthermore, most of the IoT platforms solutions are cloud centric [3–5,8]; recently Cisco coined the term fog computing, i.e. edge computing closer to the actual devices [9]. Lately resource constrained devices such as SmartDevices and raspberry pi have enriched in computational capabilities and at the same time price has become more affordable. These devices have the potential to be exploited as IoT gateways and have already been demonstrated in earlier research [10,11]. Emergence of these devices paves the way for computing at the edge of connected things, for example, raspberry pi (Raspberry Pi 3 is a credit card-sized computer with 1.2 GHz quad-core CPU, 1 GB RAM, built-in support for BLE and Wireless LAN, and priced at US $35 [12]) can be employed as an IoT gateway for smart home, mHealth, smart farming, factory automation, shipping, etc. Most of earlier research more or less agree on the typical three-layer IoT architecture as depicted in Fig. 1 [3–5,13]. It shows IoT application where things are connected to a gateway locally and gateway then collects and forwards data to the cloud for further processing which is also shown in the industry for example by AWS IoT [14]. This brings high latency and bandwidth requirements. However, IoT necessitates latency, i.e. response time as low as possible. When IoT was first coined by Kevin Ashton back in 1999, it was proposed in the context of supply chain management [15]. Due to the technological advancements and progressions in the research within IoT have evolved its vision and transformed the way Internetenabled things are being utilized. IoT vision has been expanded to many other application domains. Such expansion of scopes drives IoT on the verge of experiencing a paradigm shift towards enabling Internet of Everything (IoE) [16]. The focus of which is the integration of people, things, services, context information as seen in Fig. 2. To counter this paradigm shift, new approaches are mandated to research into.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد فعالسازی هوش توزیع شده با کمک کنترل کننده IoT آینده – الزویر 2018 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2018
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 14 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه وایلی
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله An efficient in‐network caching decision algorithm for Internet of things
ترجمه عنوان مقاله بهره وری در یک الگوریتم تصمیم گیری ذخیره سازی شبکه برای اینترنت اشیا
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط مهندسی کامپیوتر، فناوری اطلاعات
گرایش های مرتبط الگوریتم ها و محاسبات، اینترنت و شبکه های گسترده، شبکه های کامپیوتری
مجله مجله بین المللی سیستم های ارتباطی – International Journal of Communication Systems
دانشگاه School of Information Engineering – Wuhan University of Technology – China
کلمات کلیدی AlwaysCache-FIFO، شبکه محتوا محور، اینترنت اشیا، LRU
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی 22222
کد محصول E7740
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1 | INTRODUCTION

The Internet of things (IoT) is a paradigm where all billions of devices communicate at the same time with each other and the humans over the Internet to implement some predefined objectives. These devices can be equipped with identifying, sensing, actuation, and processing capabilities, ranging from resource‐constrained to the powerful devices.1-3 Contrary to traditional networks, IoT is a challenging environment, mainly due to resource‐constrained devices, heterogeneous access technologies, and special traffic patterns (eg, unique, heavy, and transient data). Some evolutionary approaches and standardization activities are pursued to provide IP‐based networking functionalities for IoT (eg, 6LoWPAN, RoLL, and CoRE).4 Although, these efforts have been illustrated through their valuable achievements, they still face great challenges. It is still very difficult to simultaneously service the large number of processing under the stringent requirements of IoT, complex mobility, and multicast in the case of large‐scale deployment. As the number of connected devices is growing rapidly and becoming ubiquitous, there is the need to provide a connectivity model for IoT environment to support more efficient and large‐scale deployment for its applications. Hence, the research community is considering a novel communication model called content‐centric networking (CCN) as a fully promising solution in the future. This network uses application data names directly to achieve the information retrieval by using named data instead of host to host in the Internet’s current conversation model, in which named content is uniquely identified and independently retrieved from its location.5 Interest packets (IntPk) and data packets (DataPk) are 2 types of packets that identify the content. Once a CCN node receives an IntPk message, the DataPk will be sent back to the consumers to ascertain if an appropriate content is found; otherwise, the IntPk is forwarded to upstream towards other potential content sources. In this CCN scheme, some key features have been explored to take several advantages in IoT domain like uniquely identified, retrieved independently from its location, and content‐based security. In parallel, the fact that IoT is increasingly focusing on data and information rather than point‐to‐point communications may lead to the adoption of CCN architectures and principles. As a result, CCN helps to improve energy efficiency, reduce bottleneck link, retrieval delay time, and limit massive access to resource‐constrained devices, which is a clear indicator to prove the prospects of the CCN‐IoT integration onwards.6,7 However, this integration is still at its infancy, and therefore, there exist numerous challenges that need to be addressed concerning naming, security, discovery and delivery, and an especially caching aspect that will be intensely investigated in this paper.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد بهره وری در یک الگوریتم تصمیم گیری ذخیره سازی شبکه – وایلی 2018 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.

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