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مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2018
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 15 صفحه
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منتشر شده در نشریه الزویر
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Evolving practice in land demarcation
ترجمه عنوان مقاله روند تکاملی در تعریف زمین
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط منابع طبیعی
مجله سیاست استفاده از زمین – Land Use Policy
دانشگاه Pompeu Fabra University – Spain
کلمات کلیدی زمین، ویژگی، مرزها، نقشه برداری، کاداستر، رجیستر زمین، اداره زمین
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی Land, Property, Boundaries, Surveying, Cadastres, Land registry, Land administration
شناسه دیجیتال – doi
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2018.05.050
کد محصول E8285
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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1. Introduction

Efforts to plan economic development tend to apply uniform and supposedly optimal solutions, increasingly expressed in terms of targets, such as, in the area of interest here, the percentage of registered and properly mapped land.1 The present paper contends that the reason why these centralized and expert-led efforts tend to fail massively is because they still fail to adapt to local circumstances (Easterly, 2014). They therefore disregard the value of “knowledge of the particular circumstances of time and place” underscored by Hayek (1982:521) which, even after the fall of Socialist economies, has widely been ignored in development.

1.1. Established policy

The survival of this planning misconception has affected land titling projects, which often aim at universal coverage in a given area, a policy often optimistically referred to as “systematic”, while the policy defended in this paper based on voluntary and, therefore, selective titling and demarcation is dismissed as “sporadic”. Thus, according to the World Bank’s good practice guidelines summarizing lessons learned since it started investing seriously in this area in the 1990s: “Systematic registration identifies, adjudicates, and registers rights to all adjacent land parcels in a selected locality and within a given period of time. Sporadic registration processes land rights on an ad hoc basis, usually when customers request registration of their parcels of land” (World Bank, 2005:397).2 The extreme version of this systematic-titling argument even led part of the “land administration” literature to propose “holistic” objectives, according to which surveying each land parcel was considered a requirement for good titling.3 Such land administration systems must not only provide complete information on land, including the different types of private rights and public restrictions, but ideally they must also be managed in a integrated manner to facilitate governments’ control of resources. It is claimed, for example, that “governments must proceed further and integrate the actual management processes of land use, tenure and development” (Bennett et al., 2008:127; summarizing Enemark et al., 2005). Similarly, the World Bank advised in 2005 that “cadastre and registration functions should be connected and managed by a single institutional entity wherever possible” (World Bank, 2005:398). This single-agency policy—despite some more nuanced judgments by the evaluation unit of the Bank (IEG, 2016:28)—is still advised by the Bank’s Doing Business 2018 report, when it considers as best practice in property transactions “to bring all agencies involved in property transfer under one roof”; 4 and when the “coverage” component of its “Quality of Land Administration” index also scores countries higher if their mapping agency covers the largest business city in full and even higher if it covers the whole economy. Consistent with these recommendations, which have deserved little attention in the law and economics literature,5 for decades most land titling projects and land registration reforms have been trying to implement exhaustive, even mandatory, land titling and demarcation based on delineating boundaries and representing parcels graphically, often in conjunction with attempts to integrate land registries with cadastres to reap the benefits of alleged synergies.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد روند تکاملی در تعریف زمین – الزویر 2018 اولین بار در سایت آی اس آی دانلود ISIDL. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2017
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 14 صفحه
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منتشر شده در نشریه هینداوی
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Melatonin as an Anti-Inflammatory Agent Modulating Inflammasome Activation
ترجمه عنوان مقاله ملاتونین به عنوان تعدیل کردن عامل ضد التهابی فعال سازی اینفلامازوم
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط پزشکی
گرایش های مرتبط غدد و متابولیسم
مجله مجله بین المللی غدد درون ریز – International Journal of Endocrinology
دانشگاه Anatomy and Physiopathology Division – University of Brescia – Italy
شناسه دیجیتال – doi
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1835195
کد محصول E8286
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بخشی از متن مقاله:
1. Melatonin

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is an endogenous indoleamine widely distributed in plants, unicellular organisms, algae, bacteria, invertebrates, and vertebrates [1–3]. In vertebrates, circulating melatonin is largely derived from the pineal gland [2, 4–6], although there are other organs such as gastrointestinal tract, epithelial hair follicles, skin, retina, salivary glands, platelets, and lymphocytes that produce melatonin [5, 7–11]. Specialized photoreceptive cells in the retina detect a restricted bandwidth of visible light; this information projects directly to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the central circadian pacemaker, that triggers the pineal gland to produce this indoleamine during darkness [6, 12–14]. The maximal melatonin plasma concentration occurs usually 3–5 hours after darkness onset, and its level during the daily light period is low or even undetectable [15, 16]. The synthesis of melatonin is a multistep process, which starts from the essential aromatic amino tryptophan that is picked up from the blood circulation and hydroxylated, by tryptophan hydroxylase, in 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). 5-HTP is converted to serotonin by the aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, and serotonin is subsequently converted into N-acetylserotonin (NAS) by the enzyme arylalkylamine Nacetyltransferase. The final step of melatonin synthesis is the conversion of NAS to melatonin by hydroxyindole-Omethyl transferase [3, 17–19]. Pineal melatonin is immediately released into the blood stream in a circadian manner in response to the above reported photoperiodic information received via the retinopineal pathway [20–22]. Interestingly, most of the extrapineal organs, except for the retina, may not produce melatonin in a circadian manner and it is not normally released into the blood stream in any significant amount [7, 21, 23]. In these organs, melatonin presumably functions mainly as an antioxidant to protect cells from oxidative damage [7, 14, 24]. There are three major known pathways of melatonin degradation: (a) the classical hepatic catabolic pathway that generates 6-hydroxymelatonin that is then excreted via the kidney as a sulphate conjugate [3, 5, 25, 26]; (b) the alternative indolic pathway that produces 5-methoxyindole acetic acid or 5-methoxytryptophol [27, 28]; and (c) the kynuric pathway that produces N1 -acetyl-N2 -formyl-5-kynuramine (AFMK) [29–31]. In addition to the antioxidant properties of melatonin, AFMK and N1 -acetyl-5-methoxykinuramine (AMK) are two important melatonin metabolites that have excellent radical scavenging activity [5, 32, 33].

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد ملاتونین: تعدیل کننده عامل ضد التهابی – هینداوی 2017 اولین بار در سایت آی اس آی دانلود ISIDL. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2017
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 8 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه هینداوی
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Melatonin in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Analysis Using Modern Mathematical Modeling Methods
ترجمه عنوان مقاله ملاتونین در آنالیز پیچیده توبروز اسکلروزیس با استفاده از روش های مدلسازی مدرن ریاضی
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط پزشکی
گرایش های مرتبط غدد و متابولیسم
مجله مجله بین المللی غدد درون ریز – International Journal of Endocrinology
دانشگاه Department of Pediatric Neurology – Medical University of Silesia – Poland
شناسه دیجیتال – doi
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8234502
کد محصول E8287
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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1. Introduction

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) affects 1 in 6000 live births. It is caused by mutation in a tumor suppressor gene: either the TSC1 gene on chromosome 9 or the TSC2 gene on chromosome 16; however, larger “genomic” mutations are very rare in TSC1 and more common in TSC2, occurring in about 6% of all TSC patients [1]. A mutation can be found in 85% of patients, and the total number of unique DNA variants of over 850 and 2400 for TSC1 and TSC2, respectively, has been shown to cause TSC up to date (Tuberous Sclerosis Database, http://chromium.liacs.nl/LOVD2/TSC/ home.php). About 85%–90% of children and adolescents with TSC have CNS symptoms including epilepsy, cognitive impairment, behavioral problems, and autism-like symptoms [1, 2]. Epilepsy usually begins during the first year of life, frequently with focal seizures, tonic clonic or myoclonic seizures, or epileptic spasms. TSC patients may experience all kinds of seizures, which can become intractable over time [1]. Mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes lead to disruption of the TSC1–TSC2 intracellular protein complex. At the cellular level, loss of TSC1 or TSC2 results in upregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein complex [3]. The recognition of the role of mTOR pathway upregulation in TSC-associated lesions opens new possibilities for treatment strategy. Probably, mTOR inhibitors may not only suppress seizures, but also influence/reduce the epileptogenesis [4]. The etiology of sleep problems, frequently observed in TSC, remains unclear [5]. In children with TSC, severe sleep problems usually appear after the onset of epileptic spasms and are often due to sleep-related epileptic events (night waking, early waking, seizure-related sleep problems, and excessive daytime sleepiness) [5, 6]. Blunted melatonin (MLT) blood levels are especially interesting for their potential, yet unproven link with the disrupted sleep-wake cycle is frequently seen in many TSC children. In healthy subjects, melatonin secretion by the pineal gland increases prior to sleep onset and a peak is seen 4-5 hours after sleep onset. The circadian melatonin secretion in patients with epilepsy is characterized by an increased phase shift of melatonin release as compared to the nonepileptic patients [7]. Thus, since seizures are the most common neurological symptom of TSC, occurring in 96% children, similar disturbances may also be expected in TSC. However, to our knowledge, no one has looked at the circadian rhythms of melatonin production in children with TSC. In order to fill this literature gap, we decided to record the circadian melatonin secretion rhythms in TSC children and to analyze the data using the mathematical modelling proposed previously in our study of circadian rhythms of endogenous melatonin secretion in patients with epilepsy [7]. The parameters describing the diurnal melatonin secretion, melatonin concentration, release amplitude, phase shift of melatonin release, and sleep duration in children with TSC were compared with the data obtained for children with and without epilepsy. In addition, the mathematical model determines the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) of melatonin secretion, as an important circadian marker [8].

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد ملاتونین در آنالیز پیچیده توبروز اسکلروزیس – هینداوی 2017 اولین بار در سایت آی اس آی دانلود ISIDL. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2018
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 14 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه هینداوی
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Melatonin Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species-Driven Proliferation, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, and Vasculogenic Mimicry in Oral Cancer
ترجمه عنوان مقاله جلوگیری ملاتونین از دوباره فعال سازی تکثیر گونه های اکسیژن فعال، انتقال اپیتلیال-مزانشیمال در سرطان دهان
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط پزشکی
گرایش های مرتبط غدد و متابولیسم، خون و آنکولوژی
مجله پزشکی اکسیداتیو و طول عمر سلولی – Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
دانشگاه Department of Stomatology – Third Military Medical University – China
شناسه دیجیتال – doi
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3510970
کد محصول E8288
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1. Introduction

Oral cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide [1]. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most prevalent type and accounts for 90% of oral cancers [2]. Despite great advances in surgical treatment, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, the high reoccurrence and poor prognosis of oral cancer appear frequently owing to the rapid growth, local invasiveness, and distant metastasis [3–5]. Thus, exploring the underlying mechanisms of oral cancer growth and metastasis and identifying a potential therapeutic agent for oral cancer are imperative. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly associated with several pathological conditions, including cancers [6]. It is established that cancer cells usually generate a large amount of ROS [7]. ROS can activate Akt signaling responsible for the proliferation and apoptosis evasion in several cancers, including oral cancer [8, 9]. ROS are highly involved in cancer metastasis, which are proposed to be putative mediators or modulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) [10–12]. EMT plays important roles in cancer metastasis and mainly endows cancer cells with invasive phenotypes [13]. During EMT, epithelial cells lose their epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin, and gain the mesenchymal markers, including Vimentin and Snail [14]. Reportedly, Snail is a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin in tumor cells [15]. Mechanistically, the activation of phosphatidylinositide 3- kinases (PI3K)/Akt pathway is essential for ROS-driven EMT in colon cancer cells; in detail, ROS-dependent Akt activation enhances the expression of Snail and Vimentin and simultaneously reduces E-cadherin expression [16]. ROS is also a critical regulator of angiogenesis that is essential for cancer metastasis [17, 18]. ROS induces the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and increases its stabilization, thereby leading to the upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and subsequent angiogenesis [19, 20]. Both extracellular-regulated protein kinases (ERK) and PI3K/Akt pathways greatly contribute to the ROS-enhanced HIF-1α and VEGF during the malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells [21]. Thus, targeting ROS is a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce the malignant phenotypes of oral cancer. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), which is mainly produced and secreted by the pineal gland, was initially found to be involved in the regulation of chronobiological rhythm [22]. Recently, as a potent antioxidant, melatonin scavenges a variety of free radicals directly and stimulates the activities of antioxidative enzymes indirectly [23, 24]. Melatonin exerts suppressive effects on multiple types of tumors partly depending on free radical scavenging and antioxidative activities [25–27]. Previously, melatonin was utilized as a preventive and curative agent for oral cancers by abolishing oxidative stress [28, 29]. Nevertheless, whether melatonin hampers oral cancer by reducing ROS-increased proliferation, EMT, and angiogenesis remains unknown.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد جلوگیری ملاتونین از فعال سازی تکثیر گونه اکسیژن فعال – هینداوی 2018 اولین بار در سایت آی اس آی دانلود ISIDL. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2018
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی  11 صفحه
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منتشر شده در نشریه الزویر
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Functional Interaction between Melatonin Signaling and Noncoding RNAs
ترجمه عنوان مقاله تعامل کارکردی بین سیگنالینگ ملاتونین و RNA های غیر کدومی
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط پزشکی
گرایش های مرتبط غدد و متابولیسم
مجله روندها در غدد درون ریز و متابولیسم – Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism
دانشگاه Chang Gung Memorial Hospital – Keelung – Taiwan
شناسه دیجیتال – doi
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2018.03.008
کد محصول E8289
وضعیت ترجمه مقاله  ترجمه آماده این مقاله موجود نمیباشد. میتوانید از طریق دکمه پایین سفارش دهید.
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Introduction

ncRNA

In light of the recognized importance of protein molecules in mediating biological functions, RNA was considered originally as merely an intermediate molecule for passing the genetic code from DNA to final protein products, as proposed in the central dogma of molecular biology. This notion was later challenged when an enormous number of ncRNAs were discovered and their significance became increasingly clear (Table 1). Recent advances in sequencing technologies have revealed that at least 70% of the human genome is transcribed into RNA while only less than 2% encodes proteins [1,2]. This has resulted in a paradigm shift in our understanding of the potential impact of the noncoding transcriptome (see Glossary) [3]. Some of the ncRNAs are constitutively expressed in all cells and essential for fundamental aspects of cell biology, thus being known as housekeeping ncRNAs. Housekeeping ncRNAs include small-sized transcripts such as tRNA for carrying amino acids, small nuclear RNA (snRNA) for RNA splicing, and small nucleolus RNA (snoRNA) for RNA modification as well as large-sized transcripts, such as rRNA for protein translation. In addition to the housekeeping ncRNAs, another functionally distinct category of ncRNAs whose primary function is to regulate gene expression is referred to as regulatory ncRNAs. Based on an arbitrary length cutoff of 200 nucleotides, regulatory ncRNAs are roughly divided into small ncRNAs and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs). Depending on the size, biogenesis, action, and targets with which they are associated, small ncRNAs can be further classified into several subgroups including miRNAs, endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), P elementinduced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and many others [4]. miRNAs, endo-siRNAs, and piRNAs often employ their sequences in a complementary manner to silence the expression of their target genes. Nevertheless, lncRNAs can act through genomic targeting, regulation in cis (affecting adjacent genes) or trans (affecting distant genes on different chromosomes), epigenetic mechanisms, and antisense interference to up- or downregulate gene expression due to not only primary sequence similarity but also the formation of secondary structures [5]. Unlike the housekeeping ncRNAs, the expression of these small ncRNAs and lncRNAs is highly regulated in different cell types or at different stages during development. Given the lengthy list of novel ncRNA classes and their extensive regulatory roles, for a discussion of a complete repertoire of the ncRNA transcriptome and their functions the reader is directed to other reviews [3,4].

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد تعامل سیگنالینگ ملاتونین و RNA های غیر کدومی – الزویر 2018 اولین بار در سایت آی اس آی دانلود ISIDL. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2018
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 9 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه الزویر
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Effects of melatonin treatment on the postharvest quality of strawberry fruit
ترجمه عنوان مقاله اثرات درمانی ملاتونین بر کیفیت پس از برداشت میوه توت فرنگی
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط مهندسی کشاورزی، زیست شناسی
گرایش های مرتبط علوم باغبانی، علوم سلولی و مولکولی
مجله زیست شناسی و تکنولوژی پس از برداشت – Postharvest Biology and Technology
دانشگاه School of Food Science and Engineering – Hefei University of Technology – China
کلمات کلیدی ملاتونین، میوه توت فرنگی، زندگی پساز برداشت، کیفیت، اصلاح ژن
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی Melatonin, Strawberry fruit, Postharvest life, Quality, Gene expression
شناسه دیجیتال – doi
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2018.01.016
کد محصول E8290
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1. Introduction

Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit is one of the most commonly consumed berries both in fresh and processed forms. It is a rich source of a wide variety of nutritive compounds such as sugars, vitamins and minerals, as well as bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, phenolic compounds and folates, most of which are natural antioxidants and contribute to the high nutritional quality of the fruit (Tulipani et al., 2011; Giampieri et al., 2015). All of these compounds exert a synergistic and cumulative effect on human health promotion and in disease prevention. Strawberry fruit is a non-climacteric fruit and should be harvested at full maturity stage in order to get the maximum marketing quality. This fruit is also highly perishable, due to high respiration rate, low mechanical resistance, and high susceptibility to the pathogen attack (Hashmi et al., 2013; Neri et al., 2014). Undesirable changes observed during postharvest include desiccation, loss of flesh firmness, mechanical injury, and Botrytis cinerea induced decay (Charles et al., 2009; Pombo et al., 2009). Thus, there is an urgent need for reducing decay and extending the postharvest life of strawberry fruit. To date, various postharvest treatments including coating (Fan et al., 2009), chitosan coating combined with calcium treatment (Hernandez-Muñoz et al., 2008), salicylic acid treatment (Babalar et al., 2007), UV-C irradiation (Nigro et al., 2000; Charles et al., 2009; Pombo et al., 2011), and ultrasonic treatment (Cao et al., 2010) have been applied into postharvest preservation of the strawberry fruit. Nevertheless, some of these methods are not commercially reasonable due to low customer preference or need for verifying the effectiveness. The use of different fungicides is probably the most commonly used method to control postharvest decay, but it leaves residues that have potential risks to humans and the environment. Thus, it is urgent to develop new and effective methods to extend postharvest life and improve quality of strawberry fruit. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is an endogenously produced indoleamine in all plant species (Reiter et al., 2015). As a healthy ingredient contained in the diet, many fruits and vegetables, including tomato, apple, cherry, banana, and strawberry provide natural melatonin (Stürtz et al., 2011; Feng et al., 2014; Sun et al., 2015). As a safe and beneficial indoleamine, melatonin acts not only as a signaling molecule for enhancing the resistance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses, but also as a powerful free-radical scavenger and has a direct antioxidant activity (Tan et al., 1993; Arnao and Hernández-Ruiz, 2015). Recently, exogenous melatonin treatment has been tested as an effective postharvest treatment to promote ripening and improve quality of tomato fruit (Sun et al., 2015), delay postharvest senescence and increase chilling tolerance of peach fruit (Cao et al., 2016; Gao et al., 2016), attenuate postharvest decay and maintain nutritional quality of strawberry fruit (Aghdam and Fard, 2017), and attenuate postharvest physiological deterioration of cassava storage roots (Ma et al., 2016). However, little information is available regarding the effects of melatonin as a postharvest treatment on the postharvest life and quality of strawberry fruit. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of postharvest melatonin treatment on the postharvest life and quality of strawberry fruit during storage at 4 °C. This study may promote the application of melatonin on the postharvest quality in strawberry fruit as well as other fruits and vegetables in the future.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد اثرات درمانی ملاتونین بر کیفیت توت فرنگی – الزویر 2018 اولین بار در سایت آی اس آی دانلود ISIDL. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2017
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 12 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه امرالد
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Medical translation: the neglected human right
ترجمه عنوان مقاله تفسیر پزشکی: غفلت از حقوق بشر
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط پزشکی، حقوق
گرایش های مرتبط بهداشت حرفه ای، حقوق بین الملل
مجله مجله بین المللی حقوق بشر در بهداشت و درمان – International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare
دانشگاه Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza – Italy
کلمات کلیدی حقوق بین الملل، حقوق بشر، مهاجرت، بهداشت عمومی، ایمنی بیمار، منع زبانی، تفسیر پزشکی، مفسر
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی International law, Human rights, Migration, Public health, Patient safety, Language barrier, Medical translation, Translator
شناسه دیجیتال – doi
https://doi.org/10.1108/IJHRH-01-2017-0004
کد محصول E8246
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Introduction: the Right to Health

Language barriers between patients and medical professionals are becoming an increasing feature of many healthcare systems around the world (Meeuwesen et al., 2011; Quan and Lynch, 2010). Many communities are facing a growing number of immigrants in hospitals and clinics, and the issue extends to ethnic minorities who speak other languages. Hearing-impaired and visually impaired citizens also commonly face language barriers. Healthcare professionals themselves are ever more likely to practice far from their home communities, which often implies that they have to communicate in another language. Those circumstances may result in a barrier to accessing care, medical error, or an outright denial of care for a patient: as such, the right to a translator in healthcare settings would seem to be given under International Law. Furthermore, the denial of proper translation has proven to lead to denial of preventative care, maiming, and even death (Price-Wise, 1998; Kelly, 2010). Both the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR, art. 25)[1] and the 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR, art.12 (2)(b,d)[2] specifically mention the Right to Health. The 1946 Constitution of the World Health Organization[3] preamble outlines health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” The UDHR guarantees “medical care and necessary social services” as a human right, whereas the ICESCR goes further by guaranteeing “the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health,” which includes “the creation of conditions which would assure to all medical service and medical attention in the event of sickness.” The United Nations’ Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights further commented on the issue of access to care in 2000[4], outlining four distinct dimensions of accessibility: non-discrimination, physical accessibility, economic accessibility (affordability), and information accessibility. To quote the attorney Natalie Huls (2004) (US Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission): “Most international human rights law tends to overlook access to health because the right to health indirectly addresses how that right is to be fulfilled. The right to health states that everyone should have access to health, but does not address the specific issues of access, guarantees to access, and does not explain what access entails.” The result is that a wronged patient seeking redress may feel that article 25 of the UDHR or article 12 of the ICESCR may not be the most practical grounds with which to bring suit before an international court, and decide to “forum shop” by appealing to other international bodies (e.g. The European Court of Human Rights), “grounds shop” (by filing using a legal basis other than the Right to Health), or simply file a case nationally.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد تفسیر پزشکی: غفلت از حقوق بشر – امرالد 2017 اولین بار در سایت آی اس آی دانلود ISIDL. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2018
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 10 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه الزویر
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Ethical legitimacy of criminal law
ترجمه عنوان مقاله مشروعیت اخلاقی حقوق جزا
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط حقوق
گرایش های مرتبط حقوق جزا و جرم شناسی
مجله مجله بین المللی حقوق، جرم و عدالت – International Journal of Law Crime and Justice
دانشگاه Warsaw University – Poland
شناسه دیجیتال – doi
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlcj.2018.03.002
کد محصول E8247
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1. Introduction. Limitations of the formal-dogmatic method

Suppose, and let this stay entirely in the realm of imagination, that the world has been almost completely destroyed after nuclear fallout. Only a few hundred people, from different corners of the world survived thanks to seeking shelter on an archipelago of deserted islands.2 After some time it transpires that they cannot return home as not only did everything get destroyed, but also severely infected, so they decide to stay on the islands and organize a society. It also quickly turns out that the survivors are not impeccable and there is a pressing need to enact criminal laws, not only to sanction violations of other instituted norms, but also to protect the fragile societal relations and other goods the new society considers important. An assembly of the survivors’ representatives needs to decide not only on a catalogue of prohibited acts, but also on the principles of criminal liability, holding perpetrators liable (bringing people to justice) and administering punishment. This is not an easy task due to drastic differences between the survivors on many levels which makes it so that a simple reconstruction of relations from before the nuclear blast is insufficient. It becomes necessary to search for another platform of understanding, one that is a source of convictions in respect of who and for what may be held criminally liable. Of course, contemporarily we are not challenged with having to build legal systems from scratch. Even newly found states, such as the United States or Israel, based their legislation, at least to a marked extent, on the system of their former sovereign. This is not to say, however, that in such cases, or following serious political transformations (like the collapse of the communist regime in Poland), the government need not establish the axiological fundamentals of the state anew, and, consequently, set up a comprehensive scheme of criminal liability. One of the chief aims of this paper is to consider possibilities of searching for sources of the model of criminal liability (perceived not through the prism of a catalogue of prohibited acts, but as principles of responsibility placed normally in the general part of a criminal code) outside of the legal system. Again, I do not wish to detract from the importance of the problem of catalogues of prohibited acts or say it is not fit to be assessed from the perspective of ethical legitimacy of criminal law. On account of the confines of this paper I chose to focus my analysis on the part of criminal law that functions as a mutual part, i.e. all that in maths appears before a bracket.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد مشروعیت اخلاقی حقوق جزا – الزویر 2018 اولین بار در سایت آی اس آی دانلود ISIDL. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2018
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 25 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه الزویر
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله The Findings of an Empirical Study of the Application of Criminal Law in Non-Terrorist Disasters and Tragedies
ترجمه عنوان مقاله یافته های مطالعات تجربی کاربرد حقوق جزا در بحران های غیر تروریستی و تراژدی ها
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط حقوق
گرایش های مرتبط حقوق جزا و جرم شناسی
مجله آینده – Futures
دانشگاه Dale E. Fowler School of Law – Chapman University – U.S.A
شناسه دیجیتال – doi
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.futures.2018.01.008
کد محصول E8248
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A. Compensatory Damages

Criminal prosecutions are the best legal means of ensuring culpable parties are held to account. For example, corporations and governments may be accused of committing wrongful acts, but the actual decisions and acts are undertaken by people. Someone made the decision, committed the act, or failed to act when they should have acted. The culpable persons may escape liability if attention is solely focused on the corporate or government entity. Criminal liability can pierce the corporate veil or government entity to reach the individual wrongdoers. Civil liability developed Tort Law to compensate the victims, usually through compensatory damages assessed against the wrongdoer, commonly referred to as a tortfeasor. Compensatory damages are intended to place victims in the condition they were in before the accident. It can usually only be done through money damages. However, three limitations exist on individual culpability such that the wrongdoer escapes liability. First, if the tortfeasor is an employee, then the employer will also often be liable through vicarious liability. Under the doctrine of vicarious liability, often referred to as respondent superior, the employer is also liable for the wrongful conduct committed in the scope of employment by an employee. Individual employees remain liable in theory, but the victim will normally seek compensation from the defendant with “deeper” pockets, the employer. The employee will effectively be relieved of liability. The second exception is when insurance will cover the loss. In situations when defendants are personally responsible for causing an accident, such as a typical automobile accident, insurance, up to the policy limits, may cover the damages. Liability insurance may effectively serve as a functional limit on liability. Assuming vicarious liability and insurance do not relieve the defendant of liability, a third means exists of escaping liability, personal bankruptcy, if the defendant lacks the resources to fully compensate the victims. The reality therefore is that even in a country with a strong compensation system, whether in a common law or civil law system, personal liability may be lacking. Potentially responsible parties, having escaped liability, may not feel the need to change conduct.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد حقوق جزا در بحران های غیر تروریستی و تراژدی ها – الزویر 2018 اولین بار در سایت آی اس آی دانلود ISIDL. پدیدار شد.


 

مشخصات مقاله
انتشار مقاله سال 2017
تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی 32 صفحه
هزینه دانلود مقاله انگلیسی رایگان میباشد.
منتشر شده در نشریه امرالد
نوع مقاله ISI
عنوان انگلیسی مقاله Selfie-Marketing: Exploring Narcissism and Self-Concept in Visual User-Generated Content on Social Media
ترجمه عنوان مقاله بازاریابی سلفی: کاوش خودشیفتگی و خودانگاری در محتوای دیداری تولید شده توسط کاربران در رسانه های اجتماعی
فرمت مقاله انگلیسی  PDF
رشته های مرتبط مدیریت، روانشناسی
گرایش های مرتبط بازاریابی، روانشناسی سازمانی و صنعتی
مجله مجله بازاریابی مصرف کننده – Journal of Consumer Marketing
دانشگاه Department of Marketing – The University of Akron – USA
کلمات کلیدی بازاریابی سلفی، محتوای تولید شده توسط کاربر، برنامه های اشتراکی بصری، خود شیفتگی، خود-مفهوم، نظریه اصولی
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی Selfie-marketing, User-generated content, Visual content-sharing apps, Narcissism, Self-concept, Grounded theory
شناسه دیجیتال – doi https://doi.org/10.1108/JCM-03-2016-1752
کد محصول E8221
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Introduction

The concept of a “selfie” is simple: a consumer takes a photo or video of himself or herself, shares it via social media, and then, waits for feedback. Approximately 93 million selfies are taken across the world each day (Cohen, 2016), with nearly 40% of millennials taking at least one selfie per day (eMarketer, 2015). Indeed, selfies are an integral part of many consumers’ lives, especially for millennials. Due to this growing trend, some companies are increasingly devoting resources to selfie-focused marketing activities (AdWeek, 2016), which encourage consumers to take and share selfies in relation to a brand. The authors hereafter refer to this concept as “selfie-marketing,” defined as user-generated selfies that are used by a company for marketing purposes. For example, Buffalo Wild Wings launched an Instagram campaign asking consumers to share selfies with the #fannerism hashtag while watching the World Cup at its restaurants (Gibson, 2014). While the marketing academic literature is studying brand-consumer interactions on mobile devices and social media in general (e.g., Bacile et al., 2014; Hamilton et al., 2016), it is important to examine the increasing trend of social networks featuring visual communication. Scholars outside of marketing, such as psychologists studying human interaction with computers, have made progress in this area. Bayer et al. (2016) examined visual-content sharing apps such as Instagram and Snapchat and how they differ from other social networking platforms in content formality and permanency, as well as unique social and emotional experiences. Moreover, Pittman and Reich (2016) suggested that people who share selfies on Instagram versus Snapchat may be attempting to express themselves differently, as social interactions on each platform may differ considerably. As such, consumers use self-presentation of selfies shared on visual content sharing apps as an impression management strategy (Qiu et al., 2015). However, this phenomenon is far less researched in a marketing context (Lim and Lim, 2016), specifically as brands start to devote more resources to selfie-marketing campaigns. The present research begins to fill this void by exploring the interplay of selfies, selfpresentation, narcissism, and self-concept on two popular visual content-sharing apps: Instagram and Snapchat. The authors examine how millennials use selfies to present their self-concepts on visual content-sharing apps, in an effort to understand their attitudes and intention to participate in selfie-marketing. This research adds to the literature’s understanding of selfie-marketing and offers insights for marketers to plan and implement selfie-marketing initiatives.

نوشته مقاله انگلیسی رایگان در مورد بازاریابی سلفی: کاوش خودشیفتگی در رسانه های اجتماعی – امرالد 2017 اولین بار در دانلود مقالات ISI. پدیدار شد.

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